Tamil Nadu (Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு pronunciation English: Land of the Tamils, IPA: [t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ]) is a state at the southern tip of India. Tamil Nadu is bordered by Puducherry(Pondicherry), Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Colonised by the East India Company, Tamil Nadu was eventually incorporated into the Madras Presidency. After the independence of India, the state of Madras was created in 1956 based on linguistic boundaries. The name of the state was changed to Tamil Nadu in the year 1969.
Tamil Nadu politics has been dominated by the AIADMK and DMK parties. They are fore runner for few policies instated at national level such as reservation policies for dominant caste and sectors in the society. Both parties stemmed from the Dravidian movement, which demanded greater rights for the 'Dravidian' population of Tamil Nadu.
Lying on the southeastern coast of the Indian peninsula, Tamil Nadu is bounded by the Eastern Ghats in the north and Nilgiri, the Annamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the west. The state has large fertile areas along the Coromandel coast, the Palk strait, and the Gulf of Mannar. The fertile plains of Tamil Nadu are fed by rivers such as the Kaveri, Palar, and Vaigai, as well as the northeast monsoon. Traditionally a manufacturing state, Tamil Nadu is also a leading agricultural producer.
The sixth most populous state in India, Tamil Nadu has the largest national urban agglomeration. In recent times, population growth in the state has been amongst the lowest in the nation. Globalisation has brought increased export opportunities, making Tamil Nadu the third largest economy among the states of India. There has also been an increase in the number of educational institutions in Tamil Nadu, with the state containing the most vocational training institutions in India. Chennai, the state capital (known until 1996 as Madras), is the fourth largest city in India. Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Tirunelveli and Tirupur are other corporations of Tamil Nadu.
Tamil Nadu has been continuously inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, and its historical and cultural traditions are among the oldest in the world. The Tamil kingdoms of Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallava were responsible for the production of some of the oldest surviving literature in India. Also, Carnatic Music, Bharatanatyam dance and Indian architecture evolved within the state. Indeed, several famous composers, such as Tyagaraja, lived and flourished in Tamil Nadu.