The Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino) is a country in the Apennine Mountains. It is a landlocked enclave, completely surrounded by Italy. One of the European microstates, San Marino has the smallest population of all the members of the Council of Europe.
According to tradition, San Marino is the oldest constitutional republic in the world still existing: it was founded on September 3 in the year 301 by Marinus of Rab, a Christian stonemason fleeing the religious persecution of Roman Emperor Diocletian. San Marino has the oldest written constitution still in effect, dating back to 1600.1]